When cleavages extend beyond national bordersBorders are nuisances to pastoralists.
["pastoralist: a person who raises livestock, esp. a nomadic herder" -Webster's New World College Dictionary]
So, if my cattle or goats or sheep graze on land across a national border, do I become an illegal immigrant if I follow them?
Pastoralists are nuisances to farmers. So, if your livestock grazes on my crops, you and I are going to have problems.
Not only does Nigeria have conflicts between "indigene" [people native to a place] and "settlers" [migrants who have moved into a place] and conflicts between people of different ethnic groups and conflicts between pastoralists and farmers, it turns out that some of settler/pastoralists are from other countries. Does it matter if these cleavages coincide with one another? Does it matter if they are cross-cutting? How does Nigeria address these problems?
Fulani Herdsmen Attacking Nigerians Are From Senegal, Mali - Northern Governors
The Northern Governor's Forum... says it has resolved to work with relevant stakeholders to secure Nigeria's borders and register Fulani immigrants entering into the country to rear cattle.
[T]he governors observed that most of the herdsmen involved in issues of insecurity are immigrants from Senegal and Mali.
Pastoralist and cattle
"We also mapped out new strategies that would be used by the local Fulani herdsmen to rear their cattle without having to move across the country," the Chairman of the Forum, Kashim Shettima of Borno said...
On the indigene/settler dichotomy, the governor said that there was a push by the forum towards national integration and cohesion so that every Nigerian could conveniently settle in any part of the country without suffering any form of discrimination…
The joint meeting, which had northern traditional council of emirs and chiefs in attendance, discussed issues of insecurity, the management of common assets and measures to move the region to greater heights.
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